Library: Conference publication, January 2003

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Results

Estimating The Energy Savings Potential For Low-Cost, Easy-to-Implement Measures In County Government Offices (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

Local government offices are a ubiquitous, but too often overlooked market for an energy efficiency program. This paper presents first-year results from the market potential analysis and evaluation of the Local Government Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Program (GEEP-NY), funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). (Abstract only)

Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) in Offices and Schools: Do They Influence Building Design and Decision-making? (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This project used detailed interviews and telephone surveys to explore the degree to which NEBs affect decision-making in new construction in the non-residential sector. The analysis measured the NEBs recognized by architects, engineers, owners, and developers. It also explored similarities and differences in the perception of NEBs for specifiers vs. their clients – and showed that architect and engineer (A&E) specifiers responsible for selecting building features had fairly inaccurate assessments of the importance of NEBs to their clients, likely resulting in under-specification of efficient measures and designs. (Abstract only)

A Longitudinal Approach To Evaluating Wisconsin’s Low-income Programs: Results to Date (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

The Wisconsin Department of Administration’s Public Benefits program, Focus on Energy, is sponsoring a three-year (June 30, 2001 to June 30, 2004) evaluation of the State’s low-income programs – the Wisconsin Home Energy Assistance Program (WHEAP) and the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). Because we are in the middle of the longitudinal study and only year one results are available to date, this paper focuses on introducing the WHEAP and WAP programs, discussing the evaluation methodology and research activities taking place annually, and presenting year one results (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002).  (Abstract only)

An Education and Training Evaluation that Changed a Program (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper presents an evaluation of Wisconsin’s Daylighting Collaborative as a case study of a successful education and training evaluation that helped drive subsequent program activities. Kirkpatrick’s four levels of training evaluation serve as an organizing framework for discussing how the evaluation’s use of common techniques relate to the theory of education and training evaluation. (Abstract only)

Integrating MA&E and Planning Studies to Understand and Capture Industrial Program Potential (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper presents estimates of potential electricity and peak demand savings from energy-efficiency measures in California’s industrial sector. The results are a preliminary product of the first two of a series of studies being conducted in California to improve understanding of the potential for industrial efficiency savings and estimate the current market penetration of efficiency measures. (Abstract only)

Where’s the data? Data Working Groups, Document Management Systems, and Consistent Reporting of Impacts (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

Access to information is important to the successful operation of any organization. It is one area most organizations are continually working on, taking advantage of new technology developments that allow for better and more practical access to information.

Three initiatives have been undertaken by Focus in an effort to address the issues related to providing access to information: 1) the creation of data work groups, 2) the design of a centralized document management system, and 3) the implementation of a centralized data warehouse to facilitate analysis of financial and operation data. This paper will discuss the purpose of these initiatives, identify the issues encountered in implementing them, and provide an overview of the benefits and costs of those efforts and a summary of their current status. (Abstract only)

Seattle's Conservation Kit Program-- Transforming the Residential Use of Compact Fluorescent Lighting (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of the Conservation Kit Program operated during 2001. The evaluation estimates energy savings from and the cost-effectiveness of Kit measures, as implemented in existing residential buildings throughout the utility service area. It assesses the program’s effectiveness at meeting six strategic objectives. The study also documents progress toward CF lighting market transformation in the urban residential sector. (Abstract only)

How’m I Doing? Tracking the Effectiveness of Advertising an Energy-Efficiency Program (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

The statewide Wisconsin Focus on Energy initially included umbrella advertising intended to overcome barriers of customer awareness and motivation to participate in energy-efficiency activities. To monitor the effectiveness of the umbrella advertising and obtain timely feedback, the sponsors and implementers established an evaluation process that would track selected metrics of customer awareness, program image, intent to seek additional information, and intent to engage in activities to increase energy-efficiency.
 
The first portion of this paper describes the survey results, which show modest increases in awareness of the Focus program and ENERGY STAR®, as well as in favorability toward Focus. The paper next discusses unplanned reductions in umbrella advertising that limited the opportunity to determine the effectiveness of the approach, the reasons for the changes, and some lessons learned. The final part of the paper provides an extended look at a study of differential advertising investments in supporting a specific component of Focus, the Change-A-Light campaign to increase sales of compact fluorescent lamps. (Abstract only)

Getting the Best Evaluation for the Buck (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper offers an approach to designing a cost-effective, comprehensive evaluation. This approach has been successfully used to evaluate Wisconsinís Focus on Energy (Focus) Business Programs Area during its first two years. The broad objectives of the evaluation approach are to conduct Impact, Market Effects, and Process Evaluations. Designing the evaluation was challenging due to the limited evaluation budget, the number of business programs involved, and the need to accommodate the varying informational needs of program implementers and administrators. (Abstract Only)

Regional Uses and Comparisons of National and Massachusetts Survey Data on ENERGY STAR Awareness (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

For each of the past several years, a partnership of the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has produced a study on national awareness of ENERGY STAR®. Analysis for the Massachusetts utilities was conducted by Nexus Market Research as part of a Market Progress and Evaluation Report (MPER) on the Massachusetts ENERGY STAR Appliances Program. From the perspective of the program, the CEE WebTV survey is extremely useful for addressing the question of attribution: whether positive changes in the market have been brought about at least in part by the Massachusetts utilities' program. By clarifying the value of the CEE WebTV survey with respect to Massachusetts' analytical objectives, this paper demonstrates the value of regional comparison through the CEE WebTV survey effort, and helps facilitate a common interpretation of the meaning and direction of the ENERGY STAR label through an analysis at the regional level. (Abstract only)

Addressing Program Attribution in the Wake of the California Energy Crisis (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper describes the results of a multi-phase market effects evaluation of the California Residential Lighting and Appliance Program implemented by the state’s investor-owned utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric, Southern California Edison, Southern California Gas Company, and San Diego Gas and Electric, from 1999 through 2001. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Program and to measure the market effects attributable to the Program. (Abstract only)

Another Link in the Chain: Characterizing the Wisconsin C&I HVAC Supply Market (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper presents result from market research on suppliers of equipment and services to the commercial and industrial (C/I) HVAC market for Wisconsin. The overall goal of the project is to help improve the effectiveness of Wisconsin Focus on Energy (WFOE) Business Programs activities by providing a better understanding of supply chain structures, product flows, and market actor practices, attitudes and information sources with regard to energy efficiency. (Abstract only)

Demand Response Programs: Evaluators to the Rescue (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

A challenge in many states, including New York, is guaranteeing an adequate supply of safe dependable electricity, especially during periods of peak demand. New York has responded to this challenge with a portfolio of initiatives to facilitate demand reduction as a means of maintaining the reliability of the electric system. This paper focuses on describing the different types of demand response programs offered in New York over the last three years and then highlights the results of evaluations of the programs and the role that enabling technologies played in program participantsí abilities to perform. This includes a summary of key results of the evaluation and the key insights gained on how to deal with real world evaluation challenges, including those related to survey design, response rates and customer segmentation. (Abstract only)

Seattle MeterWatch: Using Customer Feedback to Build an Internet-Based Energy Use Service (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

Seattle City Light (SCL) rolled out its first online energy consumption information service, Seattle Meter Watch (SMW), to larger business customers in July of 2001. Authorized users are each given a user Idaho and password to access the Web site where they can view, graph, and download electrical consumption, cost, and power factor data measured in 15-minute intervals from their facility’s billing meter. 

An exploratory savings analysis revealed that a small sample of SMW participants saved significantly more energy one year after enrolling in SMW than a small control group of non-participating commercial buildings. However, the preliminary nature of the scope and methodology of this savings analysis makes it difficult to completely separate the effects of the SMW service from non-programmatic influences. Based on customer comments, the research also established a prioritized list of enhancements to complete the application. (Abstract only)

Dressing the Priestess: Preparation for and Results of a Delphi Study for a Residential New Construction Program (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

To meet regulatory needs, the Massachusetts utilities sponsoring the ENERGY STAR® homes program required a ten-year forecast of the market penetration of qualifying units. A Delphi analysis was conducted, with a panel comprising nine experts, including a representative of the state’s building community, an economist who deals with the housing market, a state codes expert, and national experts on the ENERGY STAR program, as well as a program implementation contractor, and members of the program management committee. (Abstract only)

Market Penetration of Competing New Technology: A Maximum Likelihood (MLE) Approach to Modeling the Emergence of the Electronic Ballasts (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

To study the market penetration of electronic ballasts, the authors started with a conventional Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) approach, tested different functional forms, and corrected for possible failures of the selected model. This study used the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) modeling approach to generate a prediction scheme for electronic ballasts. (Abstract only)

Mass-Market Demand Management Offerings: Evaluation Methods Assessment and Results (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper draws on impact evaluations of mass-market load management programs at three utilities — Louisville Gas & Electric Company, Kentucky Utilities, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Mass-market programs can provide load reductions that are essentially dispatchable,i.e., available on five minutes or less notice since they involve the direct control of a large number of energy using appliances (e.g., air conditioners and water heaters). This paper investigates cost-effective evaluation methods that combine data from run-time loggers with a small sample of data from more precise interval meters. (Abstract only)

The Program Theory and Metrics Process (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

Wisconsin is approaching the end of its second year of implementing statewide energy efficiency programs using Public Benefits funds. The programs must address a variety of legislative goals including energy efficiency, system reliability, environmental protection, and rural economic development.

This paper will begin by defining criteria for good program metrics to set the stage, then it will present several models that
describe approaches to defining program theories and metrics. Next, we discuss a wide range of implementation related issues that influence the choice of the approach to be taken and present information on specific issues that were encountered in Wisconsin and how they were addressed. We conclude by summarizing the pros and cons of each approach and describing what we have learned from our Wisconsin experiences that may help to guide the decisions of others embarking down this path. (Abstract only)

Using Performance Metrics to Quantify Energy Savings and Emissions Reductionsfor the U.S. Department of Energy’s State Energy Program (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

As part of an effort to quantify the effects of the U.S. Department of Energy’s State Energy Program (SEP), staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a set of metrics to describe key activitieswithin 20 distinct program areas. All states, territories, and the District of Columbia were contacted in late2001 and asked to provide data on their SEP activities, and 20 states—representing half of the entire U.S.population—responded by August 31, 2002. Using the best of the available recent literature and drawing on their own previous research on SEP metrics, ORNL staff developed per-unit energy-savings estimates for at least one metric in each of 14 program areas. (Abstract only)

An Era of Energy Efficiency in the Commercial Sector: Investigation and Findings (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

The paper describes the specification and estimation of an energy demand model that focuses on electricity use in the U.S. commercial sector from 1989 to 2000. The panel model is designed to separate state effects and market-driven effects from energy efficiency program effects, thereby obtaining long-run estimates of the impact of commercial sector energy efficiency programs, including DSM and market transformation programs, on national energy use. The preliminary finding of this study is that publicly-funded energy efficiency programs have had a discernable impact on annual electricity demand. (Abstract only)

On the Threshold of Energy Efficiency in California: A Nationwide Best Practices Study of Energy Efficiency Programs (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

Energy efficiency programs and those who are responsible for designing, implementing and managing these programs with Energy Efficiency Public Purpose Program (EEPPP) funds stand on the threshold of a new era. This study will develop an EE program decomposition model containing building blocks of programmatic components and sub-components. This study will evaluate energy efficiency programs within 22 program categories across the nation at the component and sub-component level; assess applicable best practices at each level, and deliver the analysis and data in hierarchical structure to meet the varied needs and experience of the energy efficiency community. The research will explore best practices for the residential, nonresidential, and new construction energy efficiency program sectors. (Abstract only)

A Novel Approach to the Evaluation of Lighting Programs: The National Grid Energy Initiative Lighting Program (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper describes the innovative methodology employed in the evaluation of National Grid's Energy Initiative program for 2000 and 2001. Significant results were found in both stages of the analysis. The building simulation modeling (Phase I) produced a realization rate larger than 100%, indicating that the companyís initial savings estimates were low. The second phase SAE modeling indicated that the building simulation modeling may have overstated that bias. Overall, the Program achieved a realization rate of 86.5%. (Abstract only)

Using Regression Discontinuity Models to Understand Market Transformation (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

During the past ten years, China has become one of the largest consumers as well as the largest exporter of lighting products. The efficiency of lighting products made in China thus has significant implications for lighting efficiency, electricity consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development. The China Green Lights program invested some 300 million yuan to transform the domestic lighting market by increasing the supply of and demand for efficient lighting products. This study uses regression discontinuity models combined with engineering algorithms to evaluate the impact of the China Green Lights program. (Abstract only)

California's Statewide Self-Generation Incentive Program-- What Has Been Consumer Response to Date and Is It Cost-Effective? (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper presents key findings from the second-year process and impact evaluations of the Self-Generation Incentive Program targeted at the nonresidential market segments. While this paper provides an overview of the four-year $500,000,000 incentive Program's accomplishments through the end of its second year, it also addresses the key experiences of participating host customers and the third-party providers of solar photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell, microturbine and internal combustion engine cogeneration systems. (Abstract only)

From Portland to Billings and Back: Challenges and Opportunities for Small HVAC RTU Service Innovations (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

In 2001, the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance initiated a pilot program to research, design, and test an O&M service to increase the operating efficiency of small (< 10 ton) rooftop Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Units (RTUs).  The authors' evaluation findings addressed the following topics:

  • Market potential –Is there likely to be long-term interest within the market for this service?
  • Market barriers – What are the significant barriers that might impede market acceptance?
  • Critical success factors – What are the important considerations for program design that will enhance the potential for long-term success of the program?

(Abstract only)

Getting the Big Picture of a Small Plate (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

Most commercial and industrial program evaluations do not have sufficient resources to conduct comprehensive market characterization studies. Generally, the population is so large that it is impossible to allocate sufficient resources to capture information about all market participants. In 2000, the Vermont Department of Public Service, recognizing its resources were limited, but so was their market, requested an evaluation that included a characterization of the Vermont commercial and industrial market as part of the evaluation of the Efficiency Vermont commercial and industrial sector programs.

The project that emerged from this request is quite possibly the most comprehensive market assessment of a commercial industrial market to date. Although focused on a very small place - the State of Vermont - it appears to provide valuable lessons for commercial industrial construction markets throughout the nation.  (Abstract only)

DrCEUS: Energy and Demand Usage from Commercial On-Site Survey Data (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

The California Energy Commission (Commission) is conducting on-site surveys of 3,000 commercial establishments throughout the service territories of the stateís four investor owned utilities and one large municipal utility. This paper presents an overview of the study sample design, data collection efforts, DrCEUS model (input requirements and outputs), and describes the potential uses of the data resulting from this study. (Abstract only)

Determining the Total Costs and Benefits of Commissioning Public Buildings (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance is currently sponsoring a program to expand and institutionalize the practice of building commissioning among state and local governments in the Pacific Northwest. An important facet of this effort is providing government officials with detailed case studies that document the costs and benefits of the commissioning process. This paper presents the methodology and results of a cost-benefit analysis of 21 commissioning efforts undertaken as part of the program. (Abstract only)

Non-Energy Benefits from Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs: Energy Efficiency May Not be the Best Story (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper presents a portion of the results of Wisconsinís Focus On Energy (Focus) Business Programís non-energy benefits research. This research was conducted in February and March of 2003 and included 74 interviews with program participants (Partners) installing program-incentivized measures. The research was conducted via telephone interviews with selected Partners that installed measures between 6 and 12 months prior to the interviews. This paper summarizes the findings from these interviews and reports the type of benefits that Partners experience, the level of importance that Partners place on the benefits realized, and the value of the benefits to the Partners. The results indicate that Partners place significant value on their non-energy benefits and value these benefits at a level far greater than the value of the energy savings. (Abstract only)

Evaluating Low Income Energy Efficiency In California: The Intersection of Cost Effectiveness, Energy Efficiency, Equity, and Politics (Abstract Only)

Date Published: January 1, 2003     Document Type: Conference publication

This paper discusses evaluation and cost effectiveness results in the context of how they will be used to design a low income program for the 21st century in a very political environment. (Abstract only)